Wednesday, April 27, 2011

PULMONARY EDEMA

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Pulmonary edema is an abnormal build up fluids in the air sacs of the lungs which leads to difficulty in breathing

Causes

Main causes of heart failure is pulmonary edema .As the heart fails pressure in the vein gains through the lungs rise .When the pressure in the blood vessels increases the fluid is pushed into the air sacs in the lungs . This fluid interrupts normal gas exchange resulting in shortness of breathing.
Pulmonary edema may be caused by direct damage to the lungs. Such as that caused by severe infection.
Lung damage with a buildup of body fluid is also seen in kidney failure. Excision at very high altitude can also cause pulmonary edema.
It can be a complication of heart attack. Pulmonary edema is also

Symptoms of pulmonary edema

• Difficulty in breathing.
• Excessive Sweating
• Cough
• Air hunger
• Restlessness
• Shortness of breath
• Wheezing

Signs

• Abnormal heart sounds
• Increased heart rate
• Rapid breathing
Possible test include
• Complete blood count
• Blood tests to measure blood chemist and kidney function.
• Blood oxygen level low in patient with pulmonary edema.
• Chest x-ray may reveal fluids in or around the lung space.
• Electro cardiogram
• Ultrasonography of heart or echo cardiogram

Treatment

Oxygen is given through a face mask or tiny plastic tubes .A breathing Machine may be needed.
Excess fluids to be removed with the help of diuretics.
Some patients may need to use a breathing machine for a long time which may lead to damage of lung tissue.

Kidney failure and damage to major organ may persist if blood and oxygen flow are not restored quickly. The treatment for non cardiac causes of pulmonary edema varies depending on the cause severe infection needs to be treated with antibiotics and other supportive measure .oxygen supplementation is sometimes necessary if the measured oxygen level in the blood is too low .In serious conditions placing a patient on a ventilator is necessary to support breathing. Pulmonary Edema is also known as congestive heart failure takes place when the heart is diseased or overloaded left ventricle is not able to pump out enough blood which is received from lungs eventually a pressure is built in the left atrium and subsequently to pulmonary veins and capillaries causing fluid to be pushed through capillary walls into the air sacs. 

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